Apache Hadoop is the driving force behind the Big Data market, revolutionizing data processing and storage. Developed by Doug Cutting and inspired by Google's approach to managing vast data, Hadoop processes terabytes of data across cost-effective servers. The Hadoop ecosystem includes core components like HDFS and MapReduce. Components like PIG, Hive, Sqoop, Oozie, HBase, and YARN enhance its functionality. Hadoop is widely used across fields, and its version 2.0 expands data technologies. Hadoop-trained professionals find promising career prospects in this evolving landscape.