Datatypes/Literals in Ruby
Literals create objects you can use in your program. Literals include:

Booleans and nil

Numbers

Strings

Symbols

Arrays

Hashes

Ranges

Regular Expressions

Procs
Booleans and nil
nil and false are both false values. nil is sometimes used to indicate “no value” or “unknown” but evaluates to false in conditional expressions.
true is a true value. All objects except nil and false evaluate to a true value in conditional expressions.
(There are also the constants TRUE, FALSE, and NIL, but the lowercase literal forms are preferred.)
Numbers
In Ruby, numbers without decimal points are called integers, and numbers with decimal points are usually called floatingpoint numbers or, more simply, floats (you must place at least one digit before the decimal point). An integer literal is simply a sequence of digits eg. 0, 123, 123456789. Underscores may be inserted into integer literals (though not at the beginning or end), and this feature is sometimes used as a thousand separator. Example : 1_000_000_000. Underscore characters are ignored in the digit string.
Ruby integers are objects of class Fixnum or Bignum. The Fixnum and Bignum classes represent integers of differing sizes. Both classes descend from Integer (and therefore Numeric). The floatingpoint numbers are objects of class Float, corresponding to the native architecture's double data type. The Complex, BigDecimal, and Rational classes are not builtin to Ruby but are distributed with Ruby as part of the standard library. We shall be talking about classes in detail later.
Converting a String to Integer You can use the Integer method to convert a String to an Integer:
Integer("123") # => 123
Integer("0xFF") # => 255
Integer("0b100") # => 4
Integer("0555") # => 365
You can also pass a base parameter to the Integer method to convert numbers from a certain base
Integer('10', 5) # => 5
Integer('74', 8) # => 60
Integer('NUM', 36) # => 30910
Note that the method raises an ArgumentError if the parameter cannot be converted:
Integer("hello")
# raises ArgumentError: invalid value for Integer(): "hello"
Integer("23hello")
# raises ArgumentError: invalid value for Integer(): "23hello"
You can also use the String#to_i method. However, this method is slightly more permissive and has a different behavior than Integer:
"23".to_i # => 23
"23hello".to_i # => 23
"hello".to_i # => 0
String#to_i accepts an argument, the base to interpret the number as:
"10".to_i(2) # => 2
"10".to_i(3) # => 3
"A".to_i(16) # => 10
Creating an Integer
0 # creates the Fixnum 0
123 # creates the Fixnum 123
1_000 # creates the Fixnum 1000. You can use _ as separator for readability
By default the notation is base 10. However, there are some other builtin notations for different bases:
0xFF # Hexadecimal representation of 255, starts with a 0x
0b100 # Binary representation of 4, starts with a 0b
0555 # Octal representation of 365, starts with a 0 and digits
Rounding Numbers
The round method will round a number up if the first digit after its decimal place is 5 or higher and round down if that digit is 4 or lower. This takes in an optional argument for the precision you're looking for.
4.89.round # => 5
4.25.round # => 4
3.141526.round(1) # => 3.1
3.141526.round(2) # => 3.14
3.141526.round(4) # => 3.1415
Floating point numbers can also be rounded down to the highest integer lower than the number with the floor method
4.9999999999999.floor # => 4
They can also be rounded up to the lowest integer higher than the number using the ceil method
4.0000000000001.ceil # => 5
Even and Odd Numbers
The even? method can be used to determine if a number is even
4.even? # => true
5.even? # => false
The odd? method can be used to determine if a number is odd
4.odd? # => false
5.odd? # => true
Rational Numbers
Rational represents a rational number as numerator and denominator:
r1 = Rational(2, 3)
r2 = 2.5.to_r
r3 = r1 + r2
r3.numerator # => 19
r3.denominator # => 6
Rational(2, 4) # => (1/2)
Other ways of creating a Rational
Rational('2/3') # => (2/3)
Rational(3) # => (3/1)
Rational(3, 5) # => (3/5)
Rational(0.2) # => (3602879701896397/18014398509481984)
Rational('0.2') # => (1/5)
0.2.to_r # => (3602879701896397/18014398509481984)
0.2.rationalize # => (1/5)
'1/4'.to_r # => (1/4)
Complex Numbers
1i # => (0+1i)
1.to_c # => (1+0i)
rectangular = Complex(2, 3) # => (2+3i)
polar = Complex('1@2') # => (0.4161468365471424+0.9092974268256817i)
polar.rectangular # => [0.4161468365471424, 0.9092974268256817]
rectangular.polar # => [3.605551275463989, 0.982793723247329]
rectangular + polar # => (1.5838531634528576+3.909297426825682i)
Strings
A String object holds and manipulates an arbitrary sequence of bytes, typically representing characters. String objects may be created using String::new or as literals.
Quotes
Ruby string literals are enclosed within single and double quotes.
Example:
!/usr/bin/ruby
puts 'Hello everyone'
puts "Hello everyone"
Difference between singlequoted and doublequoted String literals
The main difference is that doublequoted String literals support string interpolations and the full set of escape sequences.
For instance, they can include arbitrary Ruby expressions via interpolation:
# Singlequoted strings don't support interpolation
puts 'Now is #{Time.now}'
# Now is #{Time.now}
# Doublequoted strings support interpolation
puts "Now is #{Time.now}"
# Now is 20160721 12:43:04 +0200
Doublequoted strings also support the entire set of escape sequences including "\n", "\t"...
puts 'Hello\nWorld'
# Hello\nWorld
puts "Hello\nWorld"
# Hello
# World
... while singlequoted strings support no escape sequences, baring the minimal set necessary for singlequoted strings to be useful: Literal single quotes and backslashes, ''' and '\' respectively.