Aggregation Framework in MongoDB

Aggregation Framework in MongoDB

Lesson 13: Aggregation


Aggregation in MongoDB is a powerful framework facilitating data transformation and analysis. It processes collections to derive meaningful insights through operations like grouping, filtering, and computing aggregated results. Leveraging stages like $match, $group, and $project, MongoDB's Aggregation Framework enables users to perform complex analytics, aggregations, and computations on large datasets. 

Understanding Aggregation:


  • Aggregation Overview: MongoDB's Aggregation Framework is a powerful tool that enables data aggregation operations to process and transform data sets from a collection into meaningful results.
  • Data Transformation: Aggregation facilitates various data transformation tasks such as grouping, filtering, computing aggregates, and projecting specific fields.


Why Aggregation Matters:


  • Complex Data Analysis: Aggregation is vital for performing complex analytics and statistical analysis on large datasets efficiently, enabling users to derive valuable insights.
  • Business Intelligence: It's crucial for generating reports, business intelligence, and deriving valuable metrics required for decision-making processes.

 Lesson 14: with $match, $project, $group, $out


Using $match, $project, $group, $out:


$match: Filters documents in the aggregation pipeline based on specified criteria, allowing the selection of specific data for further processing.


$project: Shapes the output documents by including, excluding, or transforming fields, enabling the creation of a new structure or filtering out unwanted fields.


$group: Groups documents together based on a specified key and performs aggregations, such as calculating counts or sums, within those groups.


$out: Stores the result of an aggregation pipeline into a new collection, allowing the aggregation result to be persistently stored.






  { $match: { status: "completed" } },

  { $project: { _id: 0, totalAmount: 1, products: 1 } },

  { $group: { _id: "$products.category", totalSales: { $sum: "$totalAmount" } } },

  { $out: "categorySales" }




This pipeline filters completed orders, projects relevant fields, groups by product category, calculates total sales, and stores the results in a new collection 'categorySales'.

 Lesson 15: with $unwind, $sort, $limit


Utilizing $unwind, $sort, $limit:


$unwind: Deconstructs arrays within documents, creating multiple documents for each array element, facilitating further processing and analysis.

$sort: Sorts documents in the pipeline based on specified fields or criteria, enabling ordered results.

$limit: Restricts the number of documents in the output, facilitating result set management and pagination.






  { $unwind: "$tags" },

  { $match: { category: "Electronics" } },

  { $sort: { price: -1 } },

  { $limit: 5 }



This pipeline unwinds the 'tags' array, filters products in the 'Electronics' category, sorts by price in descending order, and limits the output to 5 products.

 Lesson 16: with $count, $lookup, $sortByCount


Leveraging $count, $lookup, $sortByCount:


$count: Returns the count of documents that pass through the aggregation pipeline, providing a simple count result.

$lookup: Performs a left outer join on collections to retrieve matched documents from a foreign collection, facilitating data enrichment.

$sortByCount: Groups documents and sorts them based on their frequency, providing insights into data distribution and popularity.






  { $lookup: { from: "customers", localField: "customerId", foreignField: "_id", as: "customerInfo" } },

  { $unwind: "$customerInfo" },

  { $sortByCount: "$" }




This pipeline aggregates orders with customer information, performs a lookup to match customers, unwinds the results, and sorts them by the count of orders per country.


Mastering the Aggregation Framework in MongoDB equips users with the capability to perform advanced data manipulations, complex analytics, and comprehensive data transformations, enabling them to extract valuable insights and generate actionable intelligence from their datasets.